Writing Efficient C and C Code Optimization
http://www.joinc.co.kr/modules/moniwiki/wiki.php/Site/C/Documents/COptimization


Using the ARM Cortex-R4 for DSP, part 2: Software optimization
http://www.dspdesignline.com/howto/204202948;jsessionid=LRO4ELLSSGRDAQSNDLPCKHSCJUNN2JVN?pgno=2


 

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Making Programs Go Faster
http://www.ddj.com/showArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=YPZHH4STGNP4CQSNDLPCKHSCJUNN2JVN?articleID=184409489

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MMX Technology Code Optimization
Achieving maximum speed for graphics applications

http://www.ddj.com/showArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=YPZHH4STGNP4CQSNDLPCKHSCJUNN2JVN?articleID=184411044

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Intel 최적화

The Software Optimization Cookbook
High-Performance Recipes for the Intel® Architecture
by Richard Gerber
http://developer.intel.com/intelpress/sum_soc.htm

Contents

Preface xiii
Part I Performance Tools and Concepts 1
Chapter 1 Introduction 3
Building an Application 4
Optimization Pitfalls 4
The Software Optimization Process 6
Key Point 7
Chapter 2 The Benchmark 9
The Attributes of the Benchmark 10
Repeatable (Required) 10
Representative (Required) 11
Easy to Run (Required) 11
Verifiable (Required) 12
Measure Elapsed Time (Optional) 12
Complete Coverage (Situation-dependent) 12
Precision (Situation-dependent) 12
Quality Assurance and Testing (Desirable, but Optional) 13
Automobile Fuel Economy 13
Key Points 15
Chapter 3 Performance Tools 17
Timing Tools 17
Optimizing Compilers 19
Using the Intel® C++ Compiler 19  
v vi The Software Optimization Cookbook

Optimizing for Specific Processors 21
Writing Functions Specific to One Processor 22
Using SIMD Instructions 23
Automatic Vectorization 24
C++ Class Libraries for SIMD Operations 24
Intrinsics 26
Inline Assembly Language 26
Other Compiler Optimizations 27
Types of Software Profilers 28
Performance Monitor 28
VTune™ Performance Analyzer 29
Sampling 29
Call Graph Profiling 31
Source Code Analysis 33
Microsoft Visual C++ Profiler 34
Sampling Versus Instrumentation 35
Human Brain: Trial and Error, Common Sense, and Patience 36
Key Points 37
Chapter 4 The Hotspot 39
What Causes Hotspots and Cold-spots? 40
More Than Just Time 41
Uniform Execution and No Hotspots 43
Key Points 45
Chapter 5 Processor Architecture 47
Functional Blocks 48
Two Cheeseburgers Please! 49
Instruction Fetch and Decode 52
Instruction Execution 53
Retirement 55
Memory 55
Key Points 57
Part II Performance Issues 59
Chapter 6 Algorithms 61
Computational Complexity 61
Choice of Instructions 62
Data Dependencies and Instruction Parallelism 66
Memory Requirements 68
Detecting Algorithm Issues 69
Key Points 71
Chapter 7 Branching 73
Finding the Critical Mis-predicted Branches 76  
Contents vii

Step 1: Find the Mis-predicted Branches 76
Step 2: Find the Time-consuming Hotspots 77
Step 3: Determine the Percentage of Mis-predicted Branches 78
Final Sanity Check 79
The Different Types of Branches 80
Removing Branches with CMOV 82
Removing Branches with Masks 83
Removing Branches with Min/Max Instructions 84
Removing Branches By Doing Extra Work 85
Improving Branches 86
Key Points 87
Chapter 8 Memory 89
Memory Overview 90
Main Memory and Virtual Memory 91
Processor Caches 91
L1 Cache Details 93
Software Prefetch 94
Writing Data Without the Cache: Non-temporal Writes 96
Issues Affecting Memory Performance 97
Cache Compulsory Loads 98
Cache Capacity Loads 98
Cache Conflict Loads 99
Cache Efficiency 100
Data Alignment 100
Compilers and Data Alignment 102  
viii The Software Optimization Cookbook

Detecting Memory Issues 102
Finding Page Misses 103
Finding L1 Cache Misses 106
Understanding Potential Improvement 107
Fixing Memory Problems 109
Key Points 115
Chapter 9 Loops 117
Common Loop Problems 118
Loop Unrolling 119
Loop Invariant Work 123
Loop Invariant Branches 124
Iteration Dependencies 125
Memory Address Dependencies 126
Key Points 127
Chapter 10 Slow Operations 129
Slow Instructions 130
Lookup Tables 131
System Calls 134
System Idle Process 137
Key Points 141
Chapter 11 Floating Point 143
Numeric Exceptions 144
Flush-to-Zero and Denormals are Zero 147
Precision 148
Scalar-SIMD Floating Point 152
Float-to-Integer Conversions, Rounding 152
Using the Intel C++ Compiler’s Round Instead of Truncate Switch 154
Assembly Language 154
SIMD Convert with Truncation Instructions 157
Direct Bit Manipulation 157
Floating-Point Manipulation Tricks 158
Square Root 158
Reciprocal Square Root 158
Key Points 159  
Contents ix

Chapter 12 SIMD 161
Using the SIMD Instructions 162
SIMD Instruction Issues 164
Data Alignment 164
Compatibility of SIMD and x87 FPU Floating-Point Calculations 165
Data Simplifying Buffer Lengths/Padding 166
Integer SIMD 166
Single-Precision Floating-Point SIMD 167
Reciprocal Approximations Accuracy 168
Double-Precision Floating-Point SIMD 168
SIMD Data Organization 169
Determining Where to Use SIMD 176
Key Points 177
Chapter 13 Processor-Specific Optimizations 179
32-bit Intel Architectures 179
The Pentium III Processor 182
L1 Instruction Cache 182
Instruction Decoding 183
Instruction Latencies 184
Instruction Set 185
Floating-Point Control Register 185
L1 Data Cache 186
Memory Prefetch 186
Processor Events 187
Partial Register Stalls 187
Partial Flag Stall 189
Pause Instruction 189
Key Points 189
Chapter 14 Introduction to Multiprocessing 191
Parallel Programming 192
Thread Management 193
Low-level Thread Libraries 194
High-Level Thread Management with OpenMP 194
Threading Goals 197
Threading Issues 198
Tools 202
Key Points 203
Part III DESIGN AND APPLICATION OPTIMIZATION 205
Chapter 15 Design For Performance 207
Data Movement 208  
x The Software Optimization Cookbook

Performance Experiments for Design 210
Algorithms 211
Key Points 213
Chapter 16 Putting It Together: Basic Optimizations 215
The Sample Application 215
Quick Review of the Algorithms 220
Bilinear Pixel Interpolation 220
Alpha Blending 222
Image Rotation 223
Let The Optimizations Begin 224
Compilation 224
The Benchmark 225
Locate the Hotspots 228
Removing Calls To _ftol 229
Algorithm Issues 233
Investigation and Thought 234
Performance Experiments 236
Removing Work 237
Calling Functions Differently 238
Summary of Optimizations 239
Key Points 241
Chapter 17 Putting It Together: More Optimizations 243
Additional Analysis 243
Writing a Specialized Merged Function 247
Using SIMD Technology 250
More Analysis, Reduce MemCopyRect 254
Pick a Different Algorithm 256
Improving the Algorithm 257
Pre-calculating Values 259
Write-Combining Memory 260
More Analysis, Remove Multiplies 263
Knowing When to Stop Optimizing 265
Summary of Optimizations 266
Key Points 266
References 267
Index 269  

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http://www.mhpcc.edu/training/workshop2/optimization/MAIN.html#OptimizationTypes

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